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Compressibility of Airflow and Mach Number

Mon Jan 18, 2010 6:33 pm by Admin

These notes have little value for the (recreational aviator), but are included for interest. Professional pilots however will study this.

Except for a slight EAS correction to IAS/CAS, and the possible propeller effects, the compressibility/elasticity of airflow (i.e. the density change resulting from pressure disturbances) does not have any significant airframe aerodynamic effects for aircraft …

Forces in a Turn

Tue Dec 01, 2009 7:14 am by Admin

Turn forces and bank angle

The diagram below shows the relationships between centripetal force, weight, lift and bank angle.

In a level turn, the vertical component of the lift (Lvc) balances the aircraft weight and the horizontal component of lift (Lhc) provides the centripetal force.

(Note: in a right-angle triangle the tangent of an angle is the ratio of the side opposite the angle …

1.2 Gas laws and basic atmospheric forces

Tue Dec 01, 2009 6:52 am by Admin

The density (the mass of a unit of volume) of dry air is about 1.225 kg/m³ at mean sea level [msl] and decreases with altitude. The random molecular activity within a parcel of air exerts a force in all directions and is measured in terms of pressure energy per unit volume, or static pressure. This activity, i.e. the internal kinetic energy, is proportional to the absolute temperature. (Absolute …

Bernoulli's Principle and the Continuity Equation

Tue Dec 01, 2009 6:51 am by Admin

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) was a Swiss mathematician who propounded the principle that for a given parcel of freely flowing fluid, the sum of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy and static pressure energy always remains constant. (Incidently his father was the mathematician who first adopted the symbol 'g' for the acceleration due to gravity). For aerodynamic purposes, the …

Angle of Attack (Aoa) and the Lift Coefficient (Cl)

Tue Dec 01, 2009 6:48 am by Admin

The angle at which the wings meet the flight path — more properly termed the geometric angle of attack — is near 16° at minimum controllable airspeed and around 2 to 5° when cruising at low altitudes; less at higher speeds, greater at higher altitudes. We will cover the close relationship between CL, angle of attack (aoa or alpha) and airspeed in the aerofoils and wings module.

The …

Compressibility of Airflow and Mach Number

Tue Dec 01, 2009 6:37 am by Admin

These notes have little value for the recreational aviator, but are included for interest.
Except for a slight EAS correction to IAS/CAS, and the possible propeller effects, the compressibility/elasticity of airflow (i.e. the density change resulting from pressure disturbances) does not have any significant airframe aerodynamic effects for aircraft operating at velocities below about 250 knots …